The International Biathlon Union takes the problem of doping very seriously. It has adopted the World Anti-Doping Code and cooperates with the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA).

From the beginning, the IBU was at the forefront in the fight against doping. In addition to doping tests at competitions, tests have also been carried out in training sessions since the 1993-94 season. The IBU was also one of the first federations to use blood controls. The first IBU blood control was made within an extensive blood series at the 1994 World Championship in Badgastein, Austria. Since the 2000-01 season, EPO tests have been carried out by the IBU.

The IBU has established its own anti-doping rules and disciplinary rules to fight against doping.

Athletes that break the anti-doping rules will be disqualified and lose all their medals, points and prizes. Violations of those rules will also be sanctioned with a ban of two years. Anyone found guilty of doping for a second time faces a ban for life from IBU competitions.

Doping tests are mandatory in IBU World Championship. The best placed athlete and additional athletes whose names are determined by a random draw have to undergo urine testing.